On the Japanese: They referred to the Dutch East Indies as the "Southern Resource Area." They wanted to add it to the Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. They were pissed at the embargo that FDR imposed, and decided (correctly) that the USN and RN would likely contest their acquisition of the East Indies. Thus the attacks on Pearl Harbor and Singapore.
They made two mistakes: They missed the carriers, and they didn't make a second bomb/torpedo run. According to Walter Lord's Day of Infamy, of the 99 ships in Pearl at the time of the attack, only 9 were irreparably damaged. Most of the BBs were repaired and got their own back later in the war.
Billy Mitchell proved that air power was the wave of the future. Unfortunately, he mouthed off about some of the dinosaurs and was courtmartialed for it. They gave him the Medal of Honor in 1945.... nine years after his death. It was a nice gesture, anyway.